A greater level of customisation leads to better investment outcomes for investors.
For example, Multifactor Lifecycle Funds that focus on age and size of account balances are best placed to last the distance as we live for longer in retirement, compared to a Balanced Fund and Lifecycle Funds that focus on age alone.
Multifactor Lifecycle Funds:
- Generate higher expected lifetime income relative to a Balanced Fund (70% equities and 30% Fixed Income and Cash); and
- Outperform a Balanced Fund over 90% of the time based on a numerous number of different market and economic scenarios.
These are the key findings of the Rice Warner’s research paper: Lifecycle Design – To and Through Retirement.
Lifecycle Funds, also referred to as Glide Path Funds, Target Date Funds, or Lifestages Funds, reduce the equity allocation in favour of more conservative investments, fixed interest and cash, as the investor approaches retirement.
Rice Warner found that somebody aged 30 with an opening balance of $26,000 and invested in a Multifactor Lifecycle Fund had a 91.8% chance of outperforming a Balanced Fund by the time of retirement at age 63.
Their research also found that by investing in a Multifactor Lifecycle Fund the expected retirement income is up to 35% higher than that expected from a Balanced Fund (Source: Australian AFR The product that can boost super by 35pc).
For somebody aged 60 with an account balance of $118,300, a Multifactor Lifecycle Fund had a 72.4 per cent chance of outperforming a Balanced Fund.
Lastly, Second Generation Lifecycle Funds, which reduce their growth allocation later, outperformed a Balanced Fund 91.2% of the time. A Multifactor Lifecycle Fund outperforms a Second Generation Lifecycle Fund 84.6% of the time.
A key conclusion from the Rice Warner research is that Lifecycle strategies that use factors in addition to age, such as superannuation account balance size, provide the ability to better tailor a portfolio to enhance outcomes for those saving for retirement. Therefore, they often outperform other investment strategies.
They achieve this by adopting a more growth-oriented stance while an investor has a long investment horizon and shifting to defensive assets when the investor’s investment horizon grows short.
Importantly, an individual’s investment horizon is a function of not only age but also the size of their superannuation account. This is an important concept, the rationale is provided in the section below – The Benefits of a Multifactor Lifecycle Fund.
A summary of the Rice Warner analysis is provided below, along with key Conclusions and Implications for those aged 30 and 60.
A copy of the Rice Warner analysis can be found here.
To my mind, there is going to be an increased customisation of investment solutions available for those saving for retirement that will consider factors beyond age e.g. account size, salary, and assets outside of Super. Some are available already.
Technology will enable this, Microsoft and BlackRock are well advanced in collaborating, BlackRock and Microsoft want to make retirement investing as easy as ordering an Uber.
In relation to Lifecycle Funds, they are subject to wide spread criticism.
Some of this criticism is warranted, nevertheless, often the criticism is the result of the poor design of the Fund itself, rather than concept of a Lifecycle Fund itself. This is highlighted in the Rice Warner research, where the first Generation of Lifecycle Funds de-risk to early.
I covered the criticism of Lifecycle Funds in a previous Post, in the defence of Lifecycle Funds.
Lifecycle Funds can be improved upon. For example a more sophisticated approach to the management of the Cash and Fixed Interest allocation, this is well documented by the research undertaken by Dimensional Funds Advisors which I covered in a previous Post.
In my opinion, all investments strategies would benefit from a greater focus on tangible investment goals, this will lead to a more robust investment solution.
A Goals based investing approach is more robust than the application of “rule of thumbs”, such as the 4% rule and adjusting the growth allocation based purely as a function of age.
Goals based investing approaches provide a better framework in which to assess the risk of not meeting your retirement goals.
Greater levels of customisation are required, which is more relevant in the current investment environment.
Rice Warner – The benefits of Multifactor Lifecycle Funds
Investment literature indicates that an investor’s investment horizon is a key determinant of an appropriate investment strategy.
The consequence of longer investment horizons allows an investor to take on more risk because even if there is a severe market decline there is time to recover the losses.
Furthermore, and an important observation, Rice Warner’s analysis suggests that as we enter retirement investment horizon is a function of age and size of the superannuation account balance.
A retiree with a larger account balance has in effect a longer investment horizon. They are in a better position to weather any market volatility.
This reflects, that those with a small account size typically withdraw a greater proportion of their total assets each year, indicative of largely fixed minimum cost of living, resulting in a shorter investment horizon.
A very big implication of this analysis is that an investor’s investment horizon is “not bounded by the date that they choose to retire (though this point is relevant). This is as a member is likely to hold a substantial proportion of their superannuation well into the retirement phase, unless their balance is low.”
“One consequence of this is that investment strategies which consider this retirement investment horizon may deliver better outcomes for members – both to and through retirement. This is because as a member’s account balance grows, sequencing risk becomes less relevant allowing higher allocations to growth assets.”
For those wanting a better understanding of sequencing risk, please see my earlier Post.
Rice Warner conclude, Lifecycle strategies that use factors in addition to age, such as superannuation account balance size, provide the ability to better tailor a portfolio to provide enhanced outcomes for those saving for retirement. Therefore, they often outperform other investment strategies.
Thus, the title of their research Paper, Lifecycle Design – To and Through Retirement, more often than not investors should still hold a relatively high allocation to growth assets in retirement. They should be held to the day of retirement and throughout retirement.
The research clearly supports this, a higher growth asset allocations should be held to and through retirement. In my mind this is going to be an increasingly topically issue given the current market environment.
Rice Warner Analysis
Rice Warner considered several investment strategies applied to various hypothetical members throughout their lifetime.
They assess the distribution of outcomes of the investment strategies to establish whether adjustments can be made to provide members with better outcomes overtime.
Rice Warner considered:
- Balanced Strategy which adopts a fixed 70% allocation to Growth assets.
- High Growth strategy which adopts a fixed 85% allocation to Growth assets.
- First-generation Lifecycle (Lifecycle 1 (Age)) with a focus on defensive assets and de-risking at young ages.
- Second-generation Lifecycle (Lifecycle 2 (Age)) with a focus on growth assets and de-risking at older ages.
- Multi-dimensional Lifecycle (Lifecycle (Age and Balance)) which adopts a high allocation to growth assets unless a member is at an advanced age and has a low balance.
Six member profiles selected to capture low, moderate, and high wealth members at ages 30 and 60.
Rice Warner then considered the distribution of expected lifetime income under a range of investment scenarios using a stochastic model.
This allowed for a comparison of the income provided to members under each strategy in a range of investment situations for comparative purposes.
Rice Warner Conclude:
- Investment horizon is a critical driver in setting an appropriate investment strategy. Investment strategies should take into consideration a range of investment horizon, both before and after retirement.
- Adopting high allocations to growth assets is not inherently a poor strategy, even in cases where members are approaching retirement. These portfolios will typically provide:
- Improved outcomes in cases where members are young, or investment performance is strong;
- Marginally weaker outcomes where members are older and investment performance is weak.
- Second-generation Lifecycle investment strategies (focused on growth assets and late de-risking) will typically outperform first generation strategies (which are focused on defensive assets and de-risking when a member is young).
- Growth-oriented constant strategies will typically outperform First-generation Lifecycle strategies, except where investment performance is poor.
- Designing Lifecycle strategies that use further factors in addition to age (such as balance) provide the ability to better tailor a portfolio to provide enhanced outcomes by:
- Adopting a more growth-oriented stance while a member has a long investment horizon.
- Shifting to defensive assets when a member’s investment horizon grows short.
Overall the results, aged 30:
- High Growth strategies can provide significant scope for outperformance with minimal risk of underperformance relative to a Balanced Fund due to the members’ long investment horizon.
- First-generation Lifecycle strategies will typically underperform each of the other strategies considered except where investment outcomes are poor for a protracted period. This underperformance is a result of the defensive allocation of these strategies being compounded over the member’s long investment horizon.
- Second-generation Lifecycle can mitigate the risk faced by the members over their lifetime, albeit at the cost of a reduced expected return on their portfolio relative to a portfolio with a higher constant allocation to growth assets.
- Lifecycle strategies which adjust based on multiple factors are able to manage the risk and return trade-off inherent to investments in a more effective way than single strategies or Lifecycle strategies only based on age. This is a result of the increased tailoring allowing the portfolio to adopt a more aggressive stance when members are young and thereby accumulate a high balance and extend their investment horizon further. This leads to this portfolio often outperforming the other strategies considered.
For those aged 60
- High Growth strategies can provide significant outperformance in strong investment conditions. This comes at the cost of a modest level of underperformance in a poor investment scenario (a reduction in total lifetime income for members ranging between 2% and 5% relative to a Balanced fund).
- First-generation Lifecycle strategies will underperform in neutral or strong market conditions due to their lack of growth assets. In cases where investment performance is poor these strategies outperform the other strategies considered particularly for those with low levels of wealth (due to their short investment horizons).
- Two-dimensional Lifecycles provide enhanced risk management (but not necessarily better expected performance) by providing:
- Protection for members who are vulnerable to sequencing risk with short investment horizons (low and moderate wealth profiles) by adopting a Balanced stance.
- High allocations to growth for members whose investment horizon is long (high wealth profiles).
Good luck, stay healthy and safe.
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Global Investment Ideas from New Zealand. Building more Robust Investment Portfolios.